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about Oxford

Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). Its latitude and longitude are 51°45'07" N and 1°15'28" W (at Carfax Tower, which is usually considered the centre). It is home to the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world.

It is known as the "city of dreaming spires", a term coined by Matthew Arnold for the harmonious architecture of the university buildings. Unlike its great rival, Cambridge, Oxford is an industrial city, particularly associated with car manufacture in the suburb of Cowley.

Oxford is twinned with Bonn, Grenoble, Leiden, and León.

Oxford history

Oxford was first occupied in Saxon times, and was initially known as "Oxanforda". It began with the foundations of St Frideswide's nunnery in the 8th century, and was first mentioned in written records in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the year 912. In the 10th century Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes.

The University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th century records. Oxford's earliest colleges were University College (1249), Balliol (1263) and Merton (1264).

Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford is unique as a college chapel and cathedral in one foundation. Originally the Priory Church of St Frideswide, the building was extended and incorporated into the structure of the Cardinal's College shortly before its refounding as Christ Church in 1546, since which time it has functioned as the cathedral of the Diocese of Oxford.

The relationship between "town and gown" has often been uneasy—several university students were killed in the St Scholastica Day Riot of 1355.

During the English Civil War, Oxford housed the court of Charles I in 1642, after the king was expelled from London, although there was strong support in the town for the Parliamentarian cause. The town yielded to Parliamentarian forces under General Fairfax in 1646.

In 1790 the Oxford Canal connected the city with Coventry, linking with the River Thames, and in the 1840s the Great Western Railway and London and North Western Railway linked Oxford with London.

In the 19th century the controversy surrounding the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church drew attention to the city as a focus of theological thought.

Oxford's Town Hall was built during the reign of Queen Victoria. Though Oxford has city status and is a Lord Mayoralty, the seat of the city council is still called by its traditional name of "Town Hall".

By the early 20th century Oxford was experiencing rapid industrial and population growth, with the printing and publishing industries becoming well established by the 1920s. Also during that decade a major car-building industry was begun in the east of the city by the Morris Motor Company. This area, around Cowley Road, is now a popular area for students and has many bars, cafes, restaurants, clubs, and fast food outlets.

On 6 May 1954 Roger Bannister, a student at Pembroke College, ran the first authenticated sub-four minute mile at the Iffley Road track in Oxford.

Oxford's "other" university Oxford Brookes University, formerly Oxford Polytechnic, based at Headington, was given its charter in 1991.

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Oxford".

This city is also known as: Oxford.

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