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about Kolobrzeg

Kołobrzeg (German name Kolberg) is a city in Middle Pomerania in north-western Poland with some 50,000 inhabitants (2000). Kołobrzeg is located on Parseta river at the south coast of the Baltic Sea (in the middle of the section divided by the Oder and Vistula rivers). Capital of Kolobrzeg County in West Pomeranian Voivodship since 1999, previously in Koszalin Voivodship (1950-1998).

Kolobrzeg history

Settlements were found in the 9th century, but earlier traces of settlement in city territory are from 6th century. In early history, Kołobrzeg was major port on Baltic Sea and produced a lot of salt.

Kołobrzeg, with the rest of Pomerania was included (or reincluded, as the new archeological finds of Poland in 972. After the Meeting in Gniezno 1000 the emperor Otto III granted Poland the reights to separated church hierarchy. One of the newly founded dioceses was one in Kolobrzeg, which were under the archdiocese Gniezno. The first bishop of Kołobrzeg was Reinbern from Hochseegau. The Diocese and direct link with the Polish kingdom ended when Boleslaw I Chrobry withdrew his troops around 1013, chased out by pagan Pomeranians, not willing to convert to Christianity.

A century later, Kołobrzeg was again taken over by Boleslaw Krzywousty. A diocese was in existence in 1124 under Prince-Bishop Otto of Bamberg. In late 12 century Pomerania made a homage to Holy Roman Empire and Denmark, from time to time taking part in life of divided Poland, where it belonged from point of view of church organisation.

On May 23, 1255 the city was chartered with the Luebeck Law by duke Warcisław III, and settlers from Holy Roman Empire started to come.

From 1637 till 1721 Pomerania and Kolberg were part of the Swedish Kingdom (the king of Sweden being also duke of the empire) and after the Great Northern War included into the Kingdom of Prussia.

In 1761 the city was captured by Russians during the Seven Years War, but at the end of the war it returned to Prussia.

During Napoleon's invasion of Prussia, the city was besieged by Napoleon's armies from 26 April to 2 July , 1807. In a stubborn and ultimately hopeless defence, the city held out until the war was ended by the Treaty of Tilsit, which sealed France's almost total victory over Prussia.

In 1871 Kolberg became a part of the then created German Empire.

Shortly before the end of the Second World War, Kolobrzeg was chosen by Goebbels for the site of the last Nazi propaganda film Kolberg. The film was to inspire the Germans with the heroic but hopeless Prussian defense of the city in 1807 during the Napoleonic Wars. Tremendous resources were devoted to filming this epic, even diverting tens of thousands of troops from the front lines to have them serve as extras in battle scenes. The film was released in the final few weeks of Nazi Germany's existence.

In 1944 the city became a stronghold Festung Kolberg, most of civilians were expelled from the city, and between March 4 and March 18, 1945 there were major battles between the Soviet, Polish armies and the German army.

Just after the capture the city, Polish army repeated the symbolic engagement of Poland with the sea, that were the first time celebrated in 1920 by general Haller.

The devastated city was eventually returned to Poland by Potsdam Conference.

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Kolobrzeg".

This city is also known as: Kołobrzeg.

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