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about Changsha

Changsha (Traditional Chinese: 長沙; Simplified Chinese: 长沙; pinyin: cháng shā, WG: Chang-sha) is the capital of Hunan, a province of Southcentral China, located on the lower reaches of Xiangjiang river, a branch of Chang Jiang. It covers an area of 11,819 sq. kilometers and has a population of 5.955 million (2000 population census).

Changsha geography

Changsha is located at 111°53'–114°5' east longitude and 27°51'–28°40' north latitude, situated in the east central Hunan. Its terrain is high in the west and low in the east. There are many mountainous areas in the west and in the north. The Xiangjiang River flows south to northwest; 296 m high Mt. Yuelushan is in the west; and Liuyanghe River (Liuyang River) and Ladaohe River (Laodao River) east.

It belongs to the monsoon climate of the sub-tropical zone with annual average temperature being 16.8°C–17.2°C, 4.6°C in January and 28.6°C in July and annual average precipitation being 1422 mm., and frost-free period being 275 days. The four seasons is obvious and acceptable there, rainy and wet, the temperature increases rapidly and is changeful in spring. Summer is long and broiling, which has unbalanced rainfall, comfortable and abundant sunlight in autumn. In winter it is nearly rainless and not very cold.

Neighboring Areas: Jiangxi province, cities and counties of Hunan, such as Tonggu county, Wanzai county, Yichun city, Pingxiang city of Jiangxi province. Pingjiang county, Miluo city, Xiangyin County of Yueyang; Heshan District, Taojiang county, Anhua County of Yiyang; Lianyuan city of Loudi; Zhuzhou county, Liling City of Zhuzhou; Xiangtan county, Xiangxiang city of Xiangtan.

Changsha history

The earliest settlement was probably founded in the first millennium BC. By 202 BC it was already a fortified city. During Han Dynasty it was also the capital of kingdom Changsha.

The celebrated Ma-Wang-Dui (馬王堆) Tombs of Han Dynasty was constructed between 186 and 165 BC. The earliest tomb (no. 2), as it was excavated in the 1970s, had preseved the corp of Lady Xin-Zhui in a surprisingly good conditions. Also founded in the tomb were earliest versions of Dao-De-Jing written by Lao Zi, and many other historical documents.

During Sui Dynasty, Changsha was a county.

Yuelu Academy (岳麓书院) was founded in AD 976 (Song Dynasty), destroyed by war in 1127, and rebuilt in 1165 (Southern Song Dynasty). The celebrated philosopher Zhu Xi (朱熹) taught in this school in 1165. The school was destroyed by the Mongols but restored again in the late 15th century (Ming Dynasty). In 1903 it became Hunan High School. The existing architectures owe themselves to the restoration of 1981–1986, presumably according to the Song design.

The 1903 Treaty of Shanghai between China and Japan opened the city to foreign trade. Consequently, factories, churches and schools were built including a college built by Yale University which later became a medical centre.

Mao Zedong, founder of the People's Republic of China began his political career in Changsha. He was a student at the Hunan Number 1 Teachers' Training School from 1913 to 1918. He later returned as a teacher and principal from 1920 to 1922. The school was destroyed during the civil war but has since been restored. The Former Office of the Hunan Communist Party Central Committee where Mao Zedong once lived is now a museum that includes Mao's living quarters, photographs and other historical items from the 1920s.

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Changsha".

This city is also known as: Changsha.

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