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Bystrzyca Klodzka travel guide — Bystrzyca Klodzka tourism and travel information

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about Bystrzyca Klodzka

Bystrzyca Kłodzka (former German name Habelschwerdt) is a city in the Lower Silesian Voivodship in Poland. It is famous for its historical buildings and is a touristic centre. It has a population of 12,000 and is located on the Nysa Kłodzka and Nysa Łomnicka rivers.

Bystrzyca Klodzka geography

Bystrzyca Klodzka lies near the Kłodzko Valley, at the feet of Sudetes. It is located at the junction of Nysa Kłodzka and Nysa Łomnicka rivers.

Bystrzyca Klodzka history

The area of todays Bystrzyca Kłodzka has been inhabitated at least for 6 millenia. During the times of the Roman Empire the Celts have established numerous permanent settlements in the area of Kłodzko on the Amber Road. There are also numerous archaeological excavations of Lusatian culture remnants in the area.

The direct predecessor of the modern town is a village founded on the trade route leading through the Sudetes in mid-13th century. It was located on the so-called Western Law (a variant of the Magdeburg Law). On July 4, 1319, John of Luxemburg, king of Bohemia, granted the village with a vast autonomy and a right to construct city walls. The first noted mayor of Bystrzyca was Jakob Rücker. The town was constructed almost from the scratches. First the city walls were erected with three gates and several towers. Then the Market Square was planned on a slope and the Mayor House was constructed. Most of the Gothic architecture was preserved and the town is now considered one of the classical examples of Mediaeval architecture. The town started to grow rapidly. It was granted with several other priviledges, among them the right to trade with salt, spices and fabric.

The town initially belonged to the Duchy of Kłodzko, a fief of Bohemia. It shared the fate of the nearby city of Kłodzko and developed rapidly until the advent of the Hussite Wars in 15th century. The wars left the town depopulated by plagues, partially burnt and demolished by several consecutive floods. In 1475 a great fire destroyed the town completely. In 1567 the area became a fief of the Habsburg dynasty, though the local dukes retained their powers. It was not until 16th century when the local economy went back on tracks. Both Bystrzyca and the surrounding villages were gradually repopulated, mostly with settlers from Central Germany and Lesser Poland. Because of major German influx, Bystrzyca became one of the regional centres of Protestantism.

In late 16th century the new City House was built and many of the houses were rebuilt in Renaissance style. The town also built several facilities like paved roads and sewer system. However, the Thirty Years War and other conflicts of the counterreformation damaged the city and ended the period of prosperity. On February 14, 1745, Prussian general Hans von Lehwaldt defeated Austrian forces of Georg Oliver von Wallis near the city. During the Silesian Wars Bystrzyca (together with most of Silesia came under Prussian rule.

Soon afterwards it was captured by forces of Napoleon Bonaparte and housed a French garrison until 1815, when it returned to Prussia. Although it was made a county capital in 1818, it was also struck by high taxes. It was not until mid-19th century when the city fully recovered. The City House was yet again rebuilt, the city moat and parts of the city walls were levelled and the city expanded into new areas. After 1877 Habelschwerdt was connected to Kłodzko and Wrocław by a railroad. In 1885, Habelschwerdt had a population of 5 597, while by 1939 it rose to 6 877.

End of the 19th century saw the whole Kłodzko Valley turned into one of the most popular tourist regions. Countless hotels, sanatoria and spa were opened to the public in the nearby towns of Glatz, Bad Reinerz and Bad Landeck, as well as in the town itself. The area of former Duchy became a popular place among the rich burgeoisie of Breslau, Berlin, Vienna and Kraków.

During the World War II Habelschwerdt was spared the fate of other German cities that were levelled to the ground. There were no important industrial centres in the area and most of the Kłodzko Valley was not captured by the Red Army until after the capitulation of Germany. Shortly after the war the Kłodzko Valley became a scene of Wehrwolf activities. Following the Potsdam conference the town was awarded to Poland as a reward for the areas annexed by the Soviet Union in the east. Most of the German inhabitants of the area either escaped to Germany or were expelled by the new communist authorities.

Between 1975 and 1998 Bystrzyca belonged to the Wałbrzych Voivodship. It continued to be one of the principal mountain resorts of the area. Thanks to its historical landmarks as well as virgin landscapes, Bystrzyca Kłodzka remains one of the most popular centres of tourism and winter sports in Lower Silesia.

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Bystrzyca Klodzka".

This city is also known as: Bystrzyca Kłodzka.

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